This article is guest posted by Artur Pastor García, who has a degree in Psychology, Primary Education and Business in Human Resources.
His blog is in Spanish at http://radunga-dejandohuella.blogspot.com.com
The original article below is from 2012 titled Yohan Blake: el enemigo del ácido láctico.
In his first race early 2012 over 100 meters, Yohan Blake ran on a wet ground with a tailwind of +1.6 m/s in 9.90 that surprised everyone at that point in the season, and was placed immediately to front of the world rankings.
This gave a warning that “The Beast” will be Bolt’s main rival at the Olympics.
Yohan Blake: His Weapons
What are his weapons?
He is a compact sprinter, of 1.81 meters in height and about 75 Kg of weight with a high rate of speed in his legs and resistance that allows you to keep this frequency. This frequency is more evident in the events of 200 meters or greater where lactic acid begins to attack at the end, as you can see in the athlete’s immobilized muscles.
What is Lactic Acid?
First, what is lactic acid?
The athlete has three energy systems: the anaerobic alactic, where energy phosphate takes some effort allowing 100% of 2-3 seconds long at most, anaerobic lactic, where the reserve energy is glycogen to 90-95% effort for 20 to 60 seconds, and the aerobic where glycogen is used… the air and fat as fuel and enabling long-term efforts.
In sprinters using the first system 100-meter races, the use of ATP can maintain maximum speed for 3 seconds at most before decaying.
In races of 200 meters from the second half of 100 meters begins to use the 2nd power system, producing a “waste product” of muscle glycogen called lactic acid that accumulates in the muscles and prevents normal operation. This waste is absorbed by the muscles to use it as fuel but it takes some time to process.
In races of 400 meters is where the accumulation of lactic acid reaches values ??of 25-30 mmol, producing “a risk” to the body. The usual resting value is 0 mmol, the unit of measure and measurement is usually made ??of lactic acid to athletes after making an effort, not a fact as the VO2 that can be ascertained with a previous test.
Yohan Blake did in 2011 a feat that no one expected: a 19.26 in the 200 meters with a bad reaction time. In that race, he ran ??the 2nd half of 100 meters in 9.08, faster than Usain Bolt and Michael Johnson, thus making the 2nd half the faster split in the history of the 200 meters.
In the chart are some of the best athletes in the history of 200 meters (along with the best record in 100 of the athlete at the time), their career mark in that section 200 and section 100 and 100 to 200.
So far the best stretch made ??was for Michael Johnson in 9.20 seconds followed by Bolt with 9.27 and 9.29 Xavier Carter. Here you can see how athletes without being great runners of 100 had a high resistance to the speed at 200 where it begins to appear that lactic acid.
Also, Bolt is the only one who has dropped 10 seconds in the 1st leg of 100 in the 200 meters.
It is not possible to test for lactic acid immediately after the run to quantify how much blood would mmol these sprinters after test!!!
In fact, if two athletes perform a similar effort and lactic acid is measured in the amount of millimoles, the lesser amount in the athlete is better since it has greater tolerance for the same effort.
A sample is like swimmer Michael Phelphs who had values ??of 5.7 mmol after beating a record while the other swimmers who had made ??such a test had values ??between 11 and 15 millimoles. In this case there are two ways to see who has more speed endurance: one is to check the splits (see the 2nd part of 100 where Yohan Blake is No. 1 on the list)
The other is to apply a calculation by obtaining the percentage representing the stress of the 2nd speed section 100 with respect to the maximum speed that can develop the athlete. (i.e. the smaller difference between the speed has its 2nd stage 100 and the maximum speed, strength and therefore higher tolerance to lactic acid.)
An example would be Usain Bolt. The Jamaican in Berlin made ??a time of 9.58 seconds in the 100 meters with a maximum speed of 12.5 m/s. And he ran 19.19 in the 200 meters with a second half of 9.27 which gives an average speed of 10.79 m/s. We calculate the average speed since it gives about the maximum speed that can give and give us that Bolt ran his 2nd half of the 200m to a 87.58% over its maximum speed.
If we apply the same with Yohan Blake, who developed a speed of approximately 12 m/s, we obtain a 91.65% rate on peak. Therefore, Yohan Blake would have more resistance and tolerance to lactic acid principle because it can run while Usain Bolt but closer to its maximum threshold over it (91.65% vs. 87.58%)
(click on image to enlarge)
Thus the historical ranking of speed endurance and greater tolerance to lactic acid in a 200-meter race we would have this:
Michael Johnson would run several races around 90% or more to be his best race of 92.94% in his record of 19.32 and it would be the sprinter with greater tolerance to lactic acid without being overcome by Yohan Blake even though he has a 2nd partial upper 100 meters. Michael Johnson had a very peculiar running style with a short stride while keeping the trunk erect. Reaching a maximum speed of 42.5 km/h at 200 and a 400-meter race could have the heart to 141 beats per minute at the beginning and 171 at the end so that was almost superhuman tolerance to prolonged anaerobic effort.
Xavier Carter or also known as “X-Man.” The only athlete along with Usain Bolt and Wallace Spearmon to be one step from being the 2nd sprinter. Remember, Tyson Gay has run less than 10 seconds in the 100 meters, less than 20 in the 200 and less than 45 in the 400 meters with respective marks 10 seconds at 100, 19.63 and 44.63 for the 200 & 400. He ranks 92.04% of its maximum speed at 100. (At that time personal best was 10.09 in the 100 meters and this is reflected well in the graph.)
Yohan Blake (already discussed), with marks of 9.82 and 19.26 and a value of 91.65%.
Wallace Spearmon, whose injuries that caused regular ups and downs for an athlete credited 9.96 and 19.65 in the 100 and 200 meters and a value of 91.44%. With a good start, he would be among the world’s best in the 200.
Usain Bolt would be something away from the group with a value of 89.10% of 19.88 in a race when he was younger with more years to develop resistance in later years. (In this case had not run the 100 and just one run was his accreditation at 10.03.)
Walter Dix, who currently is running and has some fabulous 19.53 in the 200 meters and 88.14%. Also noteworthy, and a force to be considered.
Christopher Lemaitre, the only sub 10 white sprinter in history that has very good speed endurance and whose value would be 87.94% by applying this formula to his career in Daegu 19.80. Lemaitre has been characterized by having high tolerance to lactic acid so he can regain the meters lost at the start in the final stretch.
With Michael Johnson retired, Xavier Carter trying their luck in football and away from athletics, Yohan Blake is currently the main enemy of lactic acid. Will a career in 200 that exceeds its amazing tolerance percentage be seen?