This article was written by Paul Hoffman. You can read his previous articles here. He has read and researched several research papers on sprinting and performance articles so you don’t have to.
If any of these articles interest you, feel free to research the case studies and methodology and come up with your own conclusions.
Sprinting Research Review (Part 4)
1. The Effects of Fitness on the Aging Process Bryan G. Vopat, MD, Stephen A. Klinge, MD, Philip K. McClure, MD and Paul D. Fadale, MD. JAAOS 2014
Older adults training for high-impact sprinting and jumping sports and adults engaged in resistance training regimens have maintained better bone density compared with adults engaged in either distance or race walking.
2. MEETING THE NUTRITIONAL DEMANDS OF HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING. Garzon, Raquel C. M.S., R.D., L.D.; Mohr, Christopher Ph.D., R.D. ACSM Journal 2014.
A very thorough, very specific nutritional guide discussing proportions of carbs, protein, and other nutrients.
3. Effect of Lower Body Compression Garments on Hemodynamics in Response to Running Session by Tomas Venck0nas, Eugenijus Trink0nas, Sigitas Kamandulis, Jonas Poderys. Scientific World Journal, 2014,
In response to running in thermoneutral environment, compression pants did not affect major hemodynamic parameters in non-athletic females, including blood pressure, heart rate, leg blood flow, and tissue oxygenation. While compression pants increased skin temperature, no effect on running performance, sensations, or modulation of the hemodynamic response to exercise was observed.
4. Lateral Speed Bound Index for Field Sport Agility by Dean Benton & Grant Duthie.
Lateral speed bounding is the most specific type of resistance training for field sport lateral speed and agility development. Field sport athletes typically enjoy the competitive, instant and objective feedback when speed bounding is measured. It can potentially provide a valuable link between the broader strength-speed training programs and the attacking aspects of many field sport game plans.
5. Scandinavian Journal of Science and Sports, Effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on exercise performance and muscle strength in athletes.M. Hostrup1,2,*, A. Kalsen1,2, M. Auchenberg1, J. Bangsbo1 andV. Backer2
Salbutamol is a very common asthma medication. In this study it was shown to enhance sprinting performance, and thus it was recommended as a banned substance.
6. A physical model of sprinting. Département de mathématiques et de statistique, Université de Moncton, Moncton (Nouveau-Brunswick), Canada, E1A 3E9 (the entire abstract is being shown as it is quite interesting).
A new physical model of all-out sprinting is presented. The first models for the applied forces in the block, drive and maintenance phases, as well as for braking forces, are proposed and are based on experimental observations. The applied forces and the aerodynamic drag forces along with the speed and position of the sprinter are calculated by the model as functions of time.
The model’s unknown parameters are physically relevant and are quantitatively comparable to quantities measured experimentally. A novel mathematical method, not based on curve fitting, is proposed along with the model which requires two observable quantities, time of first step and start of maintenance phase, and four time splits.
The model was validated by modeling several elite sprints from available split data, as well as measured splits for non-elite sprinters, over 100 m and 200 m distances. Excellent agreement between the split times and simulated times was obtained and the model was shown to accurately predict 100 m times from 60m splits for non-elite runners and 200 m times from 100 m splits for elite sprinters. The model was also applied to the study of wind and altitude effects for elite sprinters in 100 and 200 m sprints.
The model presented in this paper may also be useful as a coaching tool for non-elite sprinters by enabling comparisons with elite sprinters, the identification of weaknesses (comparing phases, braking coefficient) and by allowing predictions of 100 m times based on 60 m (indoor) performances and 200 m times based on 100 m splits.
7. THE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT REAR KNEE ANGLES ON KINEMATICS IN THE SPRINT START by Milanese C., Bertucco M.,Zancanaro C. Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Italy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA
These results indicate that block velocity is the main kinematic parameter affected by rear knee angle during the starting block phase and acceleration phase.
Furthermore, the 90° rear knee angle allows for a better push-off of the rear leg than larger angles at the set position.
8. Over-estimation of required recovery time during repeated sprint exercise with self-regulated recovery.Phillips, Shaun M.; Thompson, Richard; Oliver, Jon L
Self-regulation of recovery time led to over-estimation of required recovery time and may not stimulate the performance improvements required by some athletes.
9. British Journal of Sports Medicine by RJ De Vos – ?2014 Predicting Hamstring Re-injury
Athletes with localised discomfort on hamstring palpation just after return to play were consequently almost four times more likely to sustain a re-injury.
10. Published Ahead-of-Print: Clinical findings just after return to play predict hamstring re-injury, but baseline MRI findings do not.
Correspondence to Dr Robert-Jan de Vos, Department of Orthopaedics, Erasmus Medical Centre, Room Hs-104, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam 3000 CA, The Netherlands;
The number of previous hamstring injuries, active knee extension deficit, isometric knee flexion force deficit at 15° and presence of localised discomfort on palpation just after RTP are associated with a higher hamstring re-injury rate. None of the baseline MRI parameters was a predictor of hamstring re-injury.
11. Vitamin D and Exercise Performance in Professional Soccer Players. Nikolaos E. Koundourakis.
This study showed that Vitamin D does play a role in enhancing sprint performance. (Author’s note: The Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University is an excellent resource for all things micronutrient.)