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This article was written by Paul Hoffman. You can read his previous articles here. He has read and researched several research papers on sprinting and performance articles so you don’t have to.
If any of these articles interest you, feel free to research the case studies and methodology and come up with your own conclusions.
Sprinting Research Review (Part 5)
1. Doping in sport: effects, harm and misconception. Vita Birzniece. Internal Medicine Journal.
The extent of long-term health consequences is difficult to predict but likely to be substantial, especially when gene doping is considered. This review summarises main groups of doping agents used by athletes, with main focus on their effects on athletic performance and adverse effects.
2. A Statistical Perspective on Running with Prosthetic Lower-Limbs: An Advantage or Disadvantage? Hossein Hassani, Mansi Ghodsi, Mehran Shadi, Siamak Noroozi and Bryce Dyer, www.mdpi.com/journal/sports
This paper finds evidence which indicates that the number of the prosthetic lower-limbs which an athlete uses in their competition and also the nature of the event (T42, T44) are two key elements which can affect the results of track running events to a degree. The results also confirm that as the length of competition increases, the number of the prosthetic lower-limbs which athletes use can make a significant difference in their competition time.
3. The BASES Expert Statement on Trainability during Childhood and Adolescence. British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences. Dr Melitta McNarry,Dr Alan Barker, Dr Rhodri S. Lloyd, Dr Martin Buchheit, Prof Craig Williams FBASES and Dr Jon Oliver.
Intensive training during accelerated growth periods is harmful to the child. There is no evidence that intensive pre-puberty training translates to later performance ability.
4. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, November 2014. Plantaris injuries in elite UK track and field athletes over a 4-year period: a retrospective cohort study, Noel Pollock, Paul Dijkstra, James Calder, Robin Chakraverty.
This retrospective cohort study demonstrates that plantaris injuries are common in elite track and field athletes and may be underreported in the literature. There may be an association between the biomechanics bend sprinting and plantaris injury. Elite athletes may benefit from appropriate preventative and management strategies implemented by coaching and medical teams.
5. Postactivation Potentiation: A Brief Review.Roxanne Horwath and Len Kravitz, Ph.D.University of New Mexico.
The main goal of incorporating PAP is to increase force development (rate and quantity) to maximize explosive power for athletic performance. Research has shown that PAP does in fact exist and can enhance performance. There are a variety of differing strategies and methods for eliciting PAP, with no known approach being identified as the most preferred.
However, the conclusion of the studies reviewed for this article point out a few concrete concepts.
First, PAP is best for activities that require explosive power movements, such as sprinting, high jumping, ski jumping, weight lifting, and boxing (French, Kraemer, Cooke, 2003; Hilfiker, Hubner, Lorenz & Marti, 2007).
Second, the PAP ergogenic stimulus has been found to last between two-to-thirty minutes (Chiu, Fry, Weiss, et al. 2003; Rixon, Lamont, Bemden, 2007).
Lastly, the preconditioning load amount used in the PAP intervention is dependent on the type on contractile activity used in the physical activity, which needs further research elucidation (Hilfiker et al.). However, from this review it may also be concluded that each individual athlete is uniquely different, and what might work for one athlete, might not work for another.
6. What is the relationship between knee height in the leg cycle and force production during the stance phase whilst running at maximal velocity? Luke Kinsey, Cardiff University.
These results can suggest that for athletes who want to improve their sprint performance, knee height and peak vertical ground reaction forces do not have a direct effect upon maximal velocity and should not be the main focus during training sessions. The proposed focus should be directed towards increasing stride length and exercises targeting improvements in joint flexibility are recommended
7. Effect of Time of Day on Performance, Hormonal and Metabolic Response during a 1000-M Cycling Time Trial Alan Lins Fernandes,João Paulo Lopes-Silva,Rômulo Bertuzzi.2014.
Our findings suggest that performance was improved in the evening, and it was accompanied by an improved hormonal and metabolic milieu.
8. RECOVERY FROM EXERCISE: ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATE NUTRITION, Clyde Williams, Emeritus Professor of Sports Science, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, UK.
Gives detailed information about timing and amounts of carb intake for maximal recovery.
9. Urgent Need of Nutritional Strategy and Innovated Functional Foods for Athletes Health and Fitness. Sahar Y. Al-Okbi, Medical Journal of Islamic World, 2014.
Interesting article discussing activity specific nutrition, just as we have activity specific (functional) conditioning workouts.
10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPRINT ABILITY AND LOADED/UNLOADED JUMP TESTS IN ELITE SPRINTERS.Loturco, Irineu; D’Angelo, Ricardo Augusto; Fernandes, Victor; Gil, Saulo; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar Cavinato; Kitamura, Katia; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo
These results reveal that vertical and horizontal jump tests may be used by coaches for assessing and monitoring qualities related to sprinting performance in elite sprinters.